There may be a link between exposure to light during pregnancy and fetal brain development. New findings may provide better understanding of certain neurological diseases later in life.

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In order to counter the increasing threat posed by multi-drug resistant germs, we need to understand how their resistance mechanisms work. Transport proteins have an important role to play in this process. Scientists have now described the three-dimensional structure of transport protein Pdr5, found also in a similar form in pathogenic fungi. The results could help develop mechanisms to combat dangerous pathogens.

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The most significant sources of organic waste in South Africa is sugarcane bagasse (5.35 million metric tonnes), invasive plants (11.30 million metric tonnes) and fruit wastes (1.3 billion metric tonnes). Microbiologists from Stellenbosch University are investigation the use of mammalian rumen in the anaerobic digestive process to break down or separate organic waste into its original building blocks, from where it can subsequently be converted into various high-value products -- just as a cow does with processing the tough plant material into the basic building blocks upon which the production of milk is based.

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Malignant tumors can enhance their ability to survive and spread by suppressing anti-tumor immune cells in their vicinity, but a new study has uncovered a new way to counter this immunosuppressive effect.

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Rice University engineers improve simulations that analyze gadolinium-based contrast agents used in clinical magnetic resonance imaging. More efficient simulations could help make better compounds for imaging technologies.

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The prevalence of obesity around the world has tripled over the past 40 years, and, along with that rise, dieting and attempts to lose weight also have soared. But according to a new article, when it comes to getting healthy and reducing mortality risk, increasing physical activity and improving fitness appear to be superior to weight loss. The authors say that employing a weight-neutral approach to the treatment of obesity-related health conditions also reduces the health risks associated with yo-yo dieting.

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Researchers say more rigorous research is needed to determine the long-term level of safety of tear gas exposure.

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A small act of kindness can go a long way, especially say researchers, towards bolstering student health and wellness. A new study explores how the inclusion of a kindness assignment in an undergraduate course impacted student perceptions of themselves, their peers and their campus.

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Scientists have studied the effect of internet usage on cognitive function. Examining more than 2000 retirees from 10 European countries, researchers found that, on average, retirees who used the internet were able to recall 1.22 extra words in a recall test compared to non-internet users (which equates to performing around 8 per cent better in the tests). The effects were more significant in women, with female retirees who used the internet able to recall an additional 2.37 words, than peers who did not go online. Results also showed that retirees who used the internet were more likely to be male, were younger and better educated, and had been retired for less time. They were also found to be in better health - despite drinking and smoking more.

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Researchers have developed an augmented reality app for smartphones in order to help people reduce their fear of spiders. The app has already shown itself to be effective in a clinical trial, with subjects experiencing less fear of real spiders after completing just a few training units with the app at home.

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A study led by dermatologists suggests that a common inflammatory skin condition may stem from poorly regulated sex hormones. The finding could offer an unexpected new target to fight this condition.

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More than 40% of middle-aged adults with no known heart disease had signs of atherosclerosis, a buildup of fatty deposits that reduce blood flow to the heart, in a study of more than 25,000 adults in Sweden. In more than 5% of the people who had a buildup of fatty deposits, the atherosclerosis narrowed at least one artery by 50% or more. In nearly 2% of the people with artery deposits, the narrowing was so severe that blood flow was obstructed to large portions of the heart.

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Being overweight or having obesity, weight that is higher than what is considered healthy for an individual's height, is a major risk factor for high blood pressure. A healthy diet, more physical activity and less sedentary time are recommended to reduce blood pressure for people who are overweight or have obesity; however, evidence of long-term weight loss and sustained blood pressure reductions from these lifestyle changes is limited. New weight-loss medications and bariatric surgery have shown benefits in both long-term weight loss and improved blood pressure, which can reduce the long-term, negative impact of high blood pressure on organ damage.

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Infants coming from homes with domestic violence often go on to have worse academic outcomes in school due to neurodevelopmental lags and a higher risk for a variety of health issues, including gastrointestinal distress, trouble eating and sleeping, as well as stress and illness.

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Researchers report new findings on the vaccinated people who are at greatest risk from severe COVID-19 leading to hospitalization or death from 14 days post the second dose vaccination, when substantial immunity should be expected. By updating the QCovid tool, they are able to identify groups more at risk of hospitalization or death from COVID-19.

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