Is it a Rembrandt or a Vermeer? For lay people, it is often challenging to distinguish paintings by these two old masters. For the trained eye of an expert, on the other hand, it is not difficult at all. Scientists have now demonstrated that mice can also become experts in sorting images into categories. The study shows that part of the category knowledge is already present in early visual areas, highlighting how widespread such semantic memories are stored throughout the brain.

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A team of engineers and biotechnologists has shown in mammals that the concentration of antibiotics in the body can be determined using breath samples. The breath measurements also corresponded to the antibiotic concentrations in the blood. The team's biosensor -- a multiplex chip that allows simultaneous measurement of several specimens and test substances -- will in future enable personalized dosing of medicines against infectious diseases on-site and help to minimize the development of resistant strains of bacteria.

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Patients in most countries of the world do not have access to basic cancer medicines, according to new research. Their article asked oncologists worldwide to list the most important cancer medicines and to describe whether patients could access these medicines in their home country.

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Scientists describe the structure of a key protein on the surface of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) and how it interacts with its receptor found on some human cells. The findings provide new leads for developing an HCV vaccine.

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Mutations in the ARID1A gene are present in more than 50% of ovarian clear cell carcinomas (OCCC), for which effective treatments are lacking. Scientists discovered that loss of ARID1A function enhances a cellular stress response pathway that promotes survival of cancer cells, which become sensitive to pharmacological inhibition of this pathway.

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Researchers report that Kleefstra syndrome, a genetic disorder that leads to intellectual disability, can be reversed after birth in a mouse model of the disease. The series of experiments showed that postnatal treatment resulted in improved symptoms, both in the brain and in behavior.

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A multifaceted microfluidic in vitro assay is helping to identify the role of hypoxia on red blood cell aging via the biomechanical pathways. It holds promise for investigating hypoxic effects on the metastatic potential and relevant drug resistance of cancer cells. It also can be a useful tool to predict the mechanical performance of natural and artificial red blood cells for transfusion purposes and to further extend to red blood cells in other blood diseases and other cell types.

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Scientists have developed processed red meat that includes added natural substitutes which reduces the carcinogenic compound nitrite added to preserve meats. The range of sausages and hams had a mixture of plants and fruits added to them which included rosemary, green tea, and resveratrol -- an extract taken from Japanese Knotweed.

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Researchers have developed a two-minute passive-test, 'Fastball EEG', that measures people's brain waves in response to a series of images and could help expand early dementia diagnosis.

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Retrospective data from more than 5,000 patients shows that GLP-1R agonists may be protective against the disease.

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A phase II, randomized clinical trial found that the optimal period for intensive rehabilitation of arm and hand use after a stroke should begin 60 to 90 days after the event.

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Missing out on the recommended seven or more hours of sleep per night could lead to more opportunities to make poorer snacking choices than those made by people who meet shut-eye guidelines, a new study suggests.

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New research shows that belonging insecurity in a STEM course, specifically a first-year chemistry course, can affect a student's midterm scores, which can then feed back into the student's belonging uncertainty. For students in groups that are underrepresented in STEM, there's a danger that such a feedback loop could cause them to decide that science isn't for them, deterring potential scientists from even entering a STEM field.

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Loneliness is a painful feeling. If it persists, it can lead to mental illnesses such as depression or anxiety disorders. Researchers have now discovered how loneliness is associated with reduced trust. This is reflected in changes in the activity and interaction of various brain structures, especially the insular cortex. The results therefore provide clues for therapeutic options.

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Cells are characterized to be stable yet highly flexible. They constantly modify their shape and even move through tissue. These vital properties are based on a dynamically organized network of branched actin filaments, which generates pushing forces to move the cell membrane. An interdisciplinary team has now revealed a previously unknown mechanism, explaining how stopping the growth of older actin filaments within the network promotes the formation of new ones, thereby maintaining the structure and function of the cytoskeleton, much like proper pruning of hedges in the garden.

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